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Pathways to Knowledge

Page history last edited by Laura Stemler 9 years, 9 months ago

Pathways to Knowledge

Created by Marjorie L. Pappas and Ann E. Tepe in 1997 (Harada & Tepe, 1998), “to show that the information searching process is non-linear and recursive.” (Zimmerman, 2002)



Sampling of Information


No resources have described its current use in schools, there is a website devoted to the model, however it has not been updated since 2000 or 2001

Pathways to Knowledge


The only research found is briefly mentioned by Callison and Lamb on their website regarding Pappas and Tepe's research in their book Pathways to Knowledge and Inquiry Learning


I selected this model because I liked that it was nonlinear and the Appreciation step where students gain an appreciation for literature and/or the arts.  That was the kicker for me because I feel that students no longer have an appreciation for literature or the arts and hopefully by using this model teachers will help students obtain a better appreciation for them.  I feel that this would be an extremely effective model due to its nonlinear format and the types of steps involved.  The steps, Appreciation, Preearch, Search, Interpretation, Communication, and Evaluation allow the student to start anywhere and move about to where they feel comfortable.  Personally I would do Presearch and Search consecutively but the others I feel I could pick up anywhere along the search.



Curriculum Alignment 


The following short descriptions of the steps are by Harada and Tepe (1998) 

Key Steps Standards for the 21st Century Learner


"...learners' appreciation of aesthetic beauty in the literature and arts grows and matures as they proceed through the stages of information seeking."



"...enables learners to connect their information need and prior knowledge."



“…identify appropriate information providers, resources and tools, then plan and implement a search strategy to find information relevant to their research question or information need.”

1.1.4, 1.2.2
“…searchers analyze, synthesize and evaluate their information to determine its relevancy and usefulness to their research question or information need.”
1.1.7, 1.2.1


“…searchers organize, apply and present new knowledge relevant to the research question or information need.”

2.1.1, 2.1.2, 3.1.1


“…ongoing in this nonlinear information process model.”

1.4.1, 2.4.2, 3.4.1




(following Jamie McKenzie's Scaffolding for Success found on http://fno.org/dec99/scaffold.html) 


Instructions on using this model can be found within the explanations of each key step yet, like many other models, allows the teacher to mold the model to their choosing.  The nonlinear nature of it could either cause the students to become off task or keep them on task, for those students who like to bounce around when working on a project.  The evaluation process is ongoing, allowing to students to go back and check their work at any point.  A down side to this nonlinear model is the lack of direction for those students who need direction in their research.  Momentum may or may not be kept depending on how students handle the nonlinear nature of the model, making it somewhat efficient.



Audience Comprehension


Harada and Tepe (1998) explain in their article that the model is suitable for all grade levels however, “Instructors in grades K through 3 use the model as a framework to introduce the skills and concepts that support the process.”


The model is not confined to a specific content and due to its nonlinear format should be able to conform to any need or learning style.




Callison, Danny, and Annette Lamb. "Virtual Information Inquiry: Pathways to Knowledge." Virtual Information Inquiry: Student Information Scientists and Instructional Specialists in the Learning Laboratory. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2009. <http://virtualinquiry.com/inquiry/pathways.htm>.

Harada, V. and Tepe, A. (1998). Pathways to knowledge. Teacher Librarian, 26(2), 9-15.  Retrieved November 24, 2009, from ProQuest Education Journals. 



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Last Updated 2009

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